I find it hard to believe the avalanche course season is almost over! I’ve had a great time teaching courses for Northeast Mountaineering with an amazing group of co-instructors and despite a relatively inconsistent Mother Nature field conditions have been quite prime for our course objectives.
One of the seasonal components of the AIARE Framework is “Continue Your Education”. AIARE 1 students often realize quite early in the course that becoming safer back-country travelers is a lifelong process. There is no finish line when it comes to avalanche education. To that end I share with my students one of the ways I’ve continued to learn about a subject I’ve been studying and teaching for over 10 years is by subscribing to multiple podcasts related to avalanche education. Multiple students have asked for a list of what podcasts I listen to which was the motivation of this post. So without further delay here’s my current playlist with a quick recap of what to expect from each. If you like to play in the snow you should give a few of these a listen on the commute into work or your drive up to the mountains!
“The podcast that helps keep you on top of the snow instead of buried beneath it.” This one is at the top of my list and if you only pick one podcast to listen to this is the one I’d recommend most. So many great episodes I hesitate to call out just one but I will… The April 5th, 2019 episode “Low Danger” is a must listen.
“Creating a stronger community through sharing stories, knowledge, and news amongst people who have a curious fascination with avalanches.” What can I say this podcast is fantastic! The range of guests is great and I haven’t found a single interview to not be engaging and enlightening… add it to your library!
Sadly it seems Doug hasn’t been able to keep this project going but the first two seasons are here for us to learn from. Doug focuses mostly on the human element and some of the episodes that have stayed with my had to do with effective communication in the backcountry and how we see ourselves in our stories (impaired objectivity). Definitely worth listening to the 1.5 seasons that are there and hopefully Doug can return to this project soon!
Honorable mention goes to the American Alpine Club’s Sharp End Podcast by Ashley Saupe. While not 100% about avalanches I’ve been a long time reader of the AAC’s Accidents in North American Climbing, a fantastic education resource in its own right and worth the annual cost of membership in my opinion! In each episode Ashley interviews those involved in climbing (and sometimes avalanche) accidents in an effort to learn what we can from these stories.
Well that’s the list. Within these 4 podcasts there are hundreds of hours of quality content that is sure to make you a more informed and safer backcountry traveler. If you found this post helpful please leave a comment below and if I missed one of your favorite podcasts please let me know! It doesn’t have to be avalanche related but outdoor recreation and risk management should be a consideration!
Happy listening and see you in the mountains!
Northeast Alpine Start
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We all carry a first aid kit with us on our adventures right? For today’s Tech Tip I want to share what first aid kit I use and how I customize it with a few extra items. While you can go to a pharmacy and piece together your own kit I prefer to start with the Adventure Medical Kits Ultralight/Watertight .7 Medical Kit as it’s a solid foundation to build upon. Here’s the details on the kit:
Designed for life in the bottom of the pack, zippered rip-stop silicon nylon outer bag has 2 inner DryFlex™ watertight pouches to ensure contents are kept clean and dry
Wound care items: 3 butterfly closure strips, 2 triple antibiotic ointments, 3 antiseptic wipes and 1 pair of nitrile gloves
Other equipment: splinter picker forceps, 3 safety pins and a 26 x 2 in. roll of duct tape
Silicone nylon pouch
8.5 x 6.5 x 2 inches
This is a great start for only 8 ounces! AMK markets this as ideal for 1-2 people for 1-4 day trips. While I do find the suggestion a bit arbitrary I feel this is a great size for a group leader or guide to start from. There is a .5 version that weighs less than 4 ounces that would be good for trail running, casual hiking, or just to keep in the glove box. A very minimalist .3 version is better than carrying nothing.
Now let’s get into what I add to this kit to make it a bit more capable of handling any situation. The first thing I add is a Petzl Zipka Headlamp. This 2.5 ounce headlamp has great light output and the retractable cord keeps it from getting tangled with other things in the kit. I consider this a bit of a “back-up” headlamp. If I know I’ll be out after dark I bring my Petzl Actik Core Headlamp and have the Zipka available to loan to someone who forgets their headlamp.
I then add a simple small knife that can be used for cutting bandages, duct tape, and clothing to make slings & swathes if need be. Occasionally it might even have to cut some summer sausage and hard cheese.
Then I add a fire starter, usually just a small Bic lighter but you can go for a fancy windproof one if you want!
Then I have a small travel size Advil bottle that I carry extra Antihistamines (Benadryl) and pain/fever reducers (Advil). I prefer to use this bottle and refill it from home when needed and save the prepackaged medications for when I forget to refill this container. Don’t forget to check the expiration dates on the prepackaged medications!
I also squeeze in a small notebook with a pencil. This is important for writing SOAP notes or sending detailed information with someone. On longer trips I carry a Rite in the Rain Notebook separate from my first aid kit.
With still room to spare I now add my two EpiPens. While I haven’t been tested for a bee allergy I feel it is a good idea for me to carry Epi after getting swarmed and stung by over a dozen yellow jackets last year. There’s also the fact that some one in my care may have a unexpected severe reaction when we are over an hour away from definitive care and having Epi in the party could be a life-saver. I also add a super light disposable CPR Face Shield.
Finally I add about 3 extra pairs of Nitrile gloves in addition to the one pair that comes with the kit. It has been my experience on multiple rescues that one pair of gloves is never enough in the mountains as they will definitely tear while dealing with a patient, and bystanders who might be able to help often don’t have their own gloves.
These additions bring my first aid kit up to one pound 5 ounces. Considering that if I grab my first aid kit I have 5 of the “Ten Essentials” I’m more than ok with that weight! I also carry either my SOL Escape Bivy (summer) or my more durable Ortovox Single Bivy (winter or while on rescues).
I’ve also taken to sliding a Saywer SAM Splint down into the back panel of my pack. While I can improvise splints from my wilderness medicine training a real SAM splint is really nice to have for quick ankle/wrist fractures or as an effective neck collar.
I feel the above set-up is quite adequate for the amount of time I spend in the mountains both guiding and recreating. For expedition leaders or large outing club type groups I’d suggest looking at the Adventure Medical Kit Ultralight/Watertight PRO Medical Kit. It’s quite all inclusive with a SAM Splint, EMT Shears, precision forceps, and more.
Undoubtedly carrying a first aid kit in the mountains is a very good idea. Accidents will happen. The longer your recreate in the mountains the more likely you, someone in your party, or someone you come across, will need a touch of first aid. Hopefully it’s something minor like a blister or small scrape. Unfortunately we can’t remove all risk from our outdoor hobbies and will are going to break some bones, or worse. There’s two things YOU can do to make these situations better.
#1 Carry the right gear
#2 Get some training
Wilderness First Aid courses are offered all over the country! Stonehearth Open Learning Opportunities (SOLO) teaches Wildness First Aid (16 hours), Wilderness First Responder (72+ hours), and Wilderness EMT (170+ hours). If you have zero medical training, and wish to play in the mountains for decades to come, do yourself a huge solid and sign up for one of these courses! You’ll be more prepared to handle what comes your way!
I hope you found this helpful. If you did please let me know in the comments below. If you carry something different or I missed a key item please let me know! Just so you are aware the links above (except for SOLO) are affiliate links. That means if you click on them, and make a purchase, a small commission is earned. That really helps keep this blog going, so if you do make a purchase thanks! If not maybe just share this article with someone you think could benefit from it!
My thoughts and prayers go out to the two young men, their families, and friends who have suffered this tragic loss.
Friday’s rescue course brought 10 students from first year back-country travelers to seasoned vets who teach avalanche awareness classes for the Appalachian Mountain Club. We spent a couple hours in the morning going over rescue gear and methodology before moving to a field location for hands on realistic practice. Towards the end of the day I was partially buried a meter down in the snow while my friend and SOLO Instructor Sue addressed patient considerations, treatment, and evacuation. I thank former USFS Snow Ranger Jeff Lane for showing me the effectiveness of having students try to pull an unconscious 180 pound person out of a burial position.
We ended the course just as the edges of an incoming Nor’easter brought some snow fall and by Saturday morning it was coming down steady!
Saturday was the start of a three day AIARE Avalanche 1 Course and with my co-instructor Grant Price we had a full course of 12 students, all ski tourers with various levels of experience, but all eager to learn. After a productive morning of classroom and an afternoon of rescue practice I headed north to the AMC Pinkham Notch Visitor Center to present a Know Before You Go presentation. This one-hour program is designed for a broad audience to introduce the 5 steps of avoiding getting caught in an avalanche.
Get the Gear
Get the Training
Get the Forecast
Get the Picture
Get out of Harm’s Way
In attendance were various guests, visitors, AMC trip leaders, and an AMC avalanche awareness class. After the presentation Q&A took us pretty late into the night.
Driving home around 10 pm I got to see some of the heaviest rates of snowfall before waking early Sunday to get Day 2 of the avalanche course going. We spent a little time inside talking about Human Factors and Heuristic Traps, some of which I had quite recently let get the better of my own decision making, before jumping into some sweet online tools and creating a tour plan for the rest of the day.
As soon as we hit the trail we started spotting obvious clues of unstable Storm Slab. Just as we were crossing the first Cutler River bridge we saw this… can you spot the two clues to unstable snow?
There are two natural “baby” slab avalanches in this picture. One is just left of the rock in the center and harder to see. The one on the right is easy to see. This is evidence of this fluffy “fist” density storm snow has gained cohesion and is sitting on a reactive weak layer… in other words it has formed into a “slab”. We found multiple spots along side the trail where “hand shears” would fail during isolation and informal ski cutting would produce noticeable results, on of the best just off the trail while crossing a small creek and captured by this students video:
We continued up to Hermit Lake and took a few minutes to poke in the snow near the Volunteer Ski Patrol Cabin. As we were close to our established turn around time we soon found ourselves enjoying some nice if not a bit bumpy turns down the Sherburne ski trail.
I’d later find out my friend and fellow avalanche educator Ben Allen was out in Bill Hill Glades in Gorham kicking off small slabs there. I could just picture his smile and giggle as he poked around in the snow triggering small inconsequential avalanches. If you didn’t know that is one of the favorite things for an avalanche educator to do! Well, that and shred super stable POW of course…
On Monday, the final day of our avalanche course, our students started trip planning at the NEM Bunkhouse at 8 AM. The Mount Washington Avalanche Center was forecasting HIGH danger for the day. In addition the Mount Washington Observatory’s Higher Summits Forecast was predicting ambient air temperatures to plummet to the negative teens with wind chills in the -50 to -70 range. A conservative tour was needed, and the group selected a tour up the Cog Railway with a high point of Jacob’s Ladder and possibly a side trip over to the top of a new slide path.
We hit the trail close to 10 AM with a parking lot temperature of -9 Fahrenheit but surprisingly very low winds. The skin up to Waumbek tank took us just over an hour.
During a break the group decided they would like to visit the top of the new slide path so we made our way up a few more hundred feet before contouring and bushwhacking over to the slide path.
Here I could feel the Human Factors tugging hard. The snow looked great. No tracks in it! We hadn’t really seen any signs of unstable snow like we had the day before. No cracking or whumping. It wasn’t as windy as we thought it would be. We had time to ski it. It was cold but climbing back up it would really warm us up.
I thought back to last weeks course when I had let Human Factors have a serious negative effect on my decision making. It was bluebird… no wind… perfect day to gain the ridge and complete a full “tour” on the last day of an avalanche class. The snow down here looked good… it must be good over there? Right? A student was apprehensive of her ability. Basically first time in the back country… My impaired objectivity reared its ugly head. “You can do it” I reassure without any evidence that she could. “We can side slip down until you feel comfortable making turns” I wrongly assumed. “It’s not that steep”… sure, for me, but what about her?
Listen to Every Voice, Respect Every Veto. These are tenants in good back-country partners.
Blue Sky Syndrome, Powder Fever, Over Confidence, and even some Kodak Courage had all crept into my consciousness. I failed to practice what I preach. I was not being objective. We made it down to the trail head just before dark. It took a few days and a formal debrief to really look back on that day for what it was. While I could call it a complete failure I’m looking at it as an ice cold head dunk of a wake-up call. 10 years of teaching these skills and I can still mess up. We all can. It’s how we move forward after making a mistake that counts.
Back to the top of Phillip, we turn our backs on what might be a killer powder run and head back to the Cog. We enjoy great low angle riding in calf deep powder back to the parking lot. We’ve returned way ahead of our turn around time as we listened to each other when we admitted we were pretty cold. No one got frostbite. The ski down had warmed us up enough for a quick round of Compression Tests and an Extended Column Test on a nearby slope.
We headed into the warmth of the AMC Thayer Hall for a tour debrief and to close the course. I handed out feedback forms that had been missing since the new curriculum rolled out.
What did you get out of this course?
How could the course be improved?
Where did you feel most at risk or in danger?
How can the instructors improve?
At the end of the day I read through all 12 forms. Small changes can be made based on these suggestions. Small changes lead to better learning environments for students and growth for the instructors.
I’m grateful for every comment and nudge from every student, fellow instructor, or guide I’ve ever gotten. Keep them coming.
AIARE Avalanche Rescue is a one-day stand alone course that is intended to be retaken on a regular basis in order to keep abreast of best practices in rescue techniques and gear. New participants will learn the basics of companion rescue, while returning participants will expand their skill set with advanced topics and realistic scenario practice to help improve their skills.
Each participant will have the opportunity to receive professional coaching on their rescue skills, and will receive a rescue card acknowledging the completion date.
AIARE Avalanche Rescue is a prerequisite for the AIARE 2 and Pro 1 courses. AIARE recommends that all backcountry travelers keep their skills current by taking an Avalanche Rescue course and receiving a rescue card at least every other year.
Who Should Take this Course
The Avalanche Rescue Course is a one-day course aimed both at new and experienced recreational backcountry travelers and aspiring avalanche professionals.
Student Learning Outcomes
At the end of the Avalanche Rescue course the student should be able to:
Describe what to do if they or a member of their party is caught in an avalanche.
Identify and be able to use gear necessary for avalanche rescue.
Set up a realistic scenario in order to practice an avalanche rescue response.
Improve their response skills and times during and after the course with feedback from instructors and peers.
Develop a plan for continuing practice.
All students will have the opportunity to get feedback from an instructor on their rescue skills and timed practice in a realistic scenario.
Students who have previously taken an AIARE 1 or an Avalanche Rescue Course will find value in having a professional help them set up realistic scenarios, practice skills in a realistic setting, receive feedback from an instructor, keep up with current best practices, and have an opportunity to practice advanced rescue skills.
Students must be able to travel in the snow, and bring appropriate equipment for traveling on snow to class. There are no other prerequisites.
Length: 1 Day [8 Hours] Guide-to-Client: 2:12 Price: $150 per person includes one night lodging!*
*As space permits. Requires additional online reservation at The Bunkhouse.
We only have two dates on the calendar so they will likely fill up soon! Please contact me directly with any questions or help booking the date at email@example.com.
I finally finished the curriculum for a 4 hour course designed to teach outdoor enthusiasts and professionals how to create, print, and use custom maps that are better than any map currently available from an outdoor retailer or publisher. Monday night I held the first course in partnership with the Kennett High School’s Adult Education Program. In attendance were some members of Granite Backcountry Alliance and the Conway Police Department.
Feedback from participants was quite positive and I’m ready to offer this course to the general public. Unlike my 8-hour Wilderness Navigation Course this course is 100% indoors. Participants need a laptop, IOS or Android smartphone, and the Avenza and GuidePace apps to take full advantage of the content.
Yesterday I offered an abbreviated version of this course in conjunction with some of my Wilderness Navigation content for a couple members of the Durham and North Conway, NH Fire Departments. With some adaptation this content is quite suitable for professionals who participate in search & rescue efforts.
After positive feedback from today’s participants I will be reaching out to Fire Departments around the state to see if they would be interested in this training. If you belong to an outdoor group or organization that might like to include this in your training regime please reach out to me for more details at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Every course has participants asking me what compass they should get. I’ve been a fan of the Suunto MC-2 for almost two decades! I wrote a long review on this compass here!
These two months are easily my favorite months to get out rock climbing and while Fall is historically a slower time for rock guiding in the Northeast it’s one of the best times to get out and climb! The cliffs are quieter, the black-flies and mosquitoes are long gone, and the cool temps and lower humidity just make rock climbing the thing to do. And don’t get me started on the foliage that is actually starting to show!
Here’s a list of some Fall climbing objectives I’d like to highlight if you think you might want to get out and climb with me before the snow flies.
Northeast Ridge of the Pinnacle, Mount Washington
This 7 pitch, 900 foot, classic alpine ridge is a must do for every eastern trad climber! Since I have a season pass to the Mount Washington Auto Road I’m offering “Euro-approach” style guided trips to this alpine mecca. Basically by using the Autoroad we save 5 hours of hiking and spend more time climbing! The road closes on October 21st so message me soon if you have a date you’d like to do this!
Requirements: Should be comfortable down-climbing 4th class terrain, and following 5.8. Previous multi-pitch experience required.
Lakeview, Cannon Cliff
This climb was once listed in a climbing magazine article called “Ten Classic Climbs under 5.10”, which is what got me to first climb it in 1994. It’s an excellent introduction to moderate alpine multi-pitch climbing with lots of relaxed slab climbing (some loose rock), and two steeper fantastic pitches at the top. A real pleasure on a nice Fall day!
Requirements: Should be comfortable following 5.6. Previous multi-pitch experience required.
Whitney Gilman, Cannon Cliff
The most exposed 5.7 in New England, this sharp alpine ridge is another “must-do” for all eastern trad climbers. After dozens of ascents I still can’t help to marvel over the historic first ascent of this climb that was at one-time, the hardest climb in the US!
Requirements: Should be comfortable following 5.8. Previous multi-pitch experience required.
Endeavor, White Ledge
This is a locals Fall favorite! 5 pitches of excellent climbing ending with a stellar 200 foot jam crack and some of the best Fall foliage views to be had!
Gym to Sport Skills
The transition from gym climbing to outdoor sport climbing can be a bit daunting. I’ve been refining my single day curriculum to help ease this transition all summer while teaching clinics at Rumney Rocks. I’ll help you make that transition so you are not left at the top anchor wondering if you set everything up right.
Self-Rescue for the Trad Climber
Do you know how to go “hands-free” on your belay device so you can get your cell phone out of your pack? Better yet can you “escape the belay” so you can go get or provide help? Or better still can you escape the belay and climb up a loaded rope to render potentially life saving first aid?
These skills should be high on the list of anyone who wishes to simply follow multi-pitch climbs! You might need to rescue the leader should an incident occur! Over the years I’ve streamlined this 8 hour day into what I think people should know if they plan on climbing more than one pitch above the ground. Grab your partner and dedicate a day to learning how to practice this skills with me!
1 person: $250 per person 2 people: $150 per person
If you would like to book any of these contact me first at email@example.com with the date or dates you are interested in. I will quickly get back to you on availability then you can lock the date down through Northeast Mountaineering using “DavidNEM” in the notes box to help flag the reservation.
Fall is almost officially here and the leaves have started to show some color in most of the notches. I hope you get out there and enjoy the best rock climbing weather the Northeast has to offer!
See you in the mountains,
Northeast Alpine Start
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Last week Mark Smiley released an online learning course focused on building anchors for traditional and alpine rock climbing. If you are following this blog Mark probably doesn’t need an introduction as his name is quite well known in the industry, but if by some chance you haven’t heard of Mark here’s a quick recap of him from his Smiley’s Project website.
Buy the Discounted Course HERE25% off ends September 8th!
-Created 45+ webisodes during a 4 year climbing project: Plays: 400K Loads: 3.8M Embeds: 3.1M
– Contract film work for: Gore-Tex, La Sportiva, American Mountain Guide Association, and others.
– Published in Alpinist, Rock n’ Ice, Climbing, Extraordinary Health, Outside Magazine, 50+ webpages.
– Organized and led 7 international expeditions, 5 Alaska Expeditions, and many domestic trips in the US.
– IFMGA Certified Mountain Guide by the American Mountain Guide Association (AMGA)
I’ve been following Mark through Facebook and Instagram for years and linked his “Creating Safe Bail Anchors” post to my Tech Tip page a couple years ago. When I saw he was offering a hour and half online course focused on upping my anchor building game I decided to invest in it and give it a review. I’m pretty sure a lot of my readers have heard of this new program and might be on the fence as to if it is worth it or not. To help with that decision here’s a recap of what the program offers. After reading this you’ll be able to decide if it’s something that could help your climbing (and score a bit of a discount on the purchase along the way!)
What is an online course?
This might seem rudimentary to some but it deserves a little clarification. Especially as it pertains to this course. Basically when you purchase this online course you get lifetime access to the “chapters” that the curriculum has been divided into. These chapters are more than just video though… they include text below to supplement the material covered on screen. Occasionally relevant links are made to appropriate research papers that support claims made during instruction.
In addition each chapter has space to publicly comment and question anything suggested during the chapter. While not replacing “live” learning this is far more interactive than simply trying to learn a skill via say… YouTube!
Buy the Discounted Course HERE25% off ends September 8th!
How much does it cost?
Before I get into the course content I’ll go over the course costs and offer a bit of a comparison. This course costs $199 (before a 25% off exclusive discount I list at the end). This is about equal to a day of semi-private 2:1 or 3:1 guiding with a highly trained guide. Comparing the two though is a bit apples to oranges. This is concentrated info around a diverse and complicated subject. After sitting through the 26 chapters and reading a lot of the accompanying text and external links I can say that the value is most definitely here, and that comes from a climber of 25 years of trad experience. What truly adds value to this course though is once you are enrolled Mark will send you an invite to a private Facebook group that is strictly for posting anchor pics, asking questions, and getting constructive feedback by an IMFGA trained guide.
This simple addition to the service is what makes this a great value for both new climbers entering the field to seasoned vets ready to up their game. Oh, and Mark offers a 30-Day Money Back Guarantee… so if you don’t feel you get your money’s worth reach out!
What will I learn?
This question must be broken down by two user groups. First, aspiring traditional climbers, then experienced climbers with a few seasons under their harnesses. The first group might seem a bit overwhelmed. While Mark is an engaging and well paced presenter there is simply a ton of info thrown at you in an hour and a half. Don’t expect to understand or retain it all after one sit-though. The good news is this isn’t a single private guided day where you try to remember everything the guide said. You can watch these chapters over and over until you feel you gain an understanding of the concepts. As Mark points out a few times through-out though you can still benefit from a qualified professional or mentor in order to build more real-life context.
For the experienced climbers out there (and a lot of my friends and partners) what will you learn from this that you haven’t learned already? Well that will vary from person to person but for me I gained a better understanding of bolt anatomy, type, inspection, and strengths. I learned more about pitons, from inspection to best clipping methods. I was reminded about the use and benefits of “the swamp knot”. I learned some better analogies to help with teaching quality nut placements (loved the flashlight analogy Mark). I learned a slick way to incorporate a cam into a slung horn anchor that I can think of at least 3 places I wish I knew that trick over the last few years.
While the overall focus of the course is on anchors you will pick up other tips that will help your climbing. Most noticeably how to occasionally “terrain belay” and move faster in 3rd and 4th class terrain with greater security than just soloing the terrain. You’ll learn how to build better bail anchors. On that note huge props for Mark’s “Just say no to stupid anchors” campaign that essentially encourages you to add that second piece if you need to bail without worrying about the financial loss… Mark will replace that piece for you (details in course). Finally I learned how to better clean up “rat nests” and upgrade rap anchors with quick-links as a service to my fellow climbers. I’ve got a few anchors locally in mind that will get some TLC very soon!
Online learning isn’t anything new. Applying it to climbing education in such a fashion kind of is. Mark is spearheading this here and I have hopes of following him with some less technical type courses (namely using CalTopo and Avenza for creating BA trip plans and maps) but when I see the quality of a course like Mark’s I realize I need to up my game to create a quality of product worth selling. Mark’s done it here, and I’m glad I bought in.
I am super excited to be able to offer an exclusive discount on this course for Northeast Alpine Start readers! From now until 11:59EST on September 8th you can get 25% off the course tuition by entering promo code “alpinestart25” during checkout here (or just use this link). That brings the $199 course down to $149.25 and gets you lifetime access to Mark’s private Facebook group to help solidify your learning.
Buy the Discounted Course HERE25% off ends September 8th!
After two decades of climbing it has become obvious to me that the learning never stops. This online course is an excellent addition to a multi-faceted approach of gaining new skills and I doubt few would ever regret the investment.
As an Ortovox Athlete I’d be embarrassed if I didn’t also mention the recently released Safety Academy Lab Rock. This is a fantastic online learning tool you should check out! It’s totally free! It does not however cover the types of anchors Mark covers in his course but I think the two courses combined compliment each other quite well! Also if you are looking to pick up some old-fashioned good ole’ reading on these subjects heres my list of the best instructional climbing books out there!
Thanks for reading.
See you in the mountains,
Northeast Alpine Start
Disclaimer: Affiliate links support the content created here at no cost to you, thank you! The author purchased this course with his own money, but if you purchase the course through the discounted link above the author will receive a small commission. All opinions are those of the author.